Manual Cleopatra: Last Queen of Egypt

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Ptolemy XII reign B. In 58 B.

Biographies & Memoirs

She was succeeded by another woman named Berenice IV. In 55 B. After the king died in 51 B. Ptolemy XIII and his advisers refused to acknowledge this arrangement and fighting broke out between them, with Cleopatra being forced to flee the royal palace. It would be Julius Caesar who helped Cleopatra regain her throne. Caesar was about 30 years older than Cleopatra, and his arrival in Egypt was something of an accident. He had been fighting a civil war against the Roman general Pompey.

After a series of defeats, Pompey fled to Egypt in 48 B.

Cleopatra: Last Queen of Egypt by Joyce Tyldesley, Paperback | Barnes & NobleĀ®

The young pharaoh decided that Pompey was more trouble than he was worth and had him executed. Cleopatra, however, managed to sneak into the palace in Alexandria and successfully plead her case to Caesar, something that surprised and enraged Ptolemy XIII. Rushing from the palace he ripped off his diadem and, in a well-orchestrated public display of anger, the crowd surged forward, intent on mobbing the palace.

Caesar had saved Cleopatra and returned her to power. The two became intimate and had a son known as Caesarion although Caesar was said to have been hesitant to acknowledge that the child was his. Cleopatra also had her sister Arsinoe IV killed.

With the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B. Ancient writers say that she was in Rome when the assassination occurred and she quickly returned to Egypt. After they prevailed, Octavian, renamed Augustus Caesar, ruled the western half of the empire while Antony controlled the east. Cleopatra said that she had assembled a fleet to attack the assassins but it could not reach the battlefield in time. In the years leading up to the Battle of Actium , Antony and Cleopatra forged a close bond and had three children together, including the twins Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene in 40 B.

Meanwhile, relations between Antony and Octavian frayed and the two gradually slid into a civil war. In 32 B.

Cleopatra: Last Queen of Egypt

Translation by Prudence Jones. In word, war was declared on Cleopatra, but in fact the declaration was aimed at Antony. Although Antony held a numerical advantage on land, the war was decided on the sea and ultimately by an engagement fought near Actium in 31 B. What happened during the battle is a mystery.

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Cleopatra: Last Queen of Egypt

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