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The Soviet foreign minister, Vyacheslav Molotov, saying farewell to his German counterpart, Joachim von Ribbentrop right , after a visit to Berlin during the Nazi-Soviet alliance that lasted from to Credit: Wikimedia Commons. A map showing eastern Europe was divided between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany by their secret pact in The last page of the Additional Secret Protocol German version.

With a stroke of a pen, the fate of millions changed forever. Credit: Wiki Commons.

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German and Soviet troops relax together during the invasion of Poland, A British cartoon from October showing Hitler and Stalin greeting each other over the corpse of Poland. Related Stories. Charging South Korea more for US troops would 'turn us into mercenaries,' expert says. South Korea just repatriated two North Korean fishermen.

In Turkey, a boarding school cares for Uighur children separated from their parents. Latest Content. Robbie Robertson reflects on brotherhood, music and 'The Last Waltz'. Still, if you suspect you or another member of your family has the disease, go to the doctor straight away. A large outbreak has been sweeping through Georgia, and may affect the wider South Eastern US, and could even spread to other regions of the country.

To keep this illness away from your family, make sure everyone is washing their hands after leaving the bathroom, and before touching any food. Thank you! Get the best LittleThings. Share With. Becca is a writer and aspirational dog owner living in NYC. Wikimedia Commons. Yellow fever is common in tropical and subtropical areas of South America and Africa.

Worldwide, about million people live in endemic areas. The WHO estimates , cases of disease and 30, deaths a year occur; the number of officially reported cases is far lower. In , a large outbreak originated in Angola and spread to neighboring countries before being contained by a massive vaccination campaign. In March and April, 11 cases were reported in China, the first appearance of the disease in Asia in recorded history. Phylogenetic analysis has identified seven genotypes of yellow fever viruses, and they are assumed to be differently adapted to humans and to the vector A.

West Africa genotype I is found in Nigeria and the surrounding areas. The three genotypes in East and Central Africa occur in areas where outbreaks are rare. Two recent outbreaks in Kenya — and Sudan and involved the East African genotype, which had remained unknown until these outbreaks occurred. The disease seems to have disappeared, with the next outbreak occurring in It was likely introduced with the importation of slaves through the slave trade from Africa.

Genotype I has been divided into five subclades, A through E. In late , a large outbreak began in Minas Gerais state of Brazil that was characterized as a sylvan or jungle epizootic. No cases had been transmitted between humans by the A. In April , the sylvan outbreak continued moving toward the Brazilian coast, where most people were unvaccinated. The main vector A.


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Proposed explanations include:. But none is considered satisfactory. The evolutionary origins of yellow fever most likely lie in Africa, with transmission of the disease from nonhuman primates to humans. As it was endemic in Africa, the natives had developed some immunity to it. When an outbreak of yellow fever would occur in an African village where colonists resided, most Europeans died, while the native population usually suffered nonlethal symptoms resembling influenza. The first definitive outbreak of yellow fever in the New World was in on the island of Barbados.

In , Brazil suffered its first epidemic, in Recife.

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The first mention of the disease by the name "yellow fever" occurred in Although yellow fever is most prevalent in tropical-like climates, the northern United States were not exempted from the fever. English colonists in Philadelphia and the French in the Mississippi River Valley recorded major outbreaks in , as well as additional yellow fever epidemics in Philadelphia, Baltimore , and New York City in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The southern city of New Orleans was plagued with major epidemics during the 19th century, most notably in and Its residents called the disease "yellow jack". Urban epidemics continued in the United States until , with the last outbreak affecting New Orleans. At least 25 major outbreaks took place in the Americas during the 18th and 19th centuries, including particularly serious ones in Cartagena, Chile , in ; Cuba in and ; Santo Domingo in ; and Memphis, Tennessee , in In , Cloutierville, Louisiana , had a late-summer outbreak of yellow fever that quickly killed 68 of the 91 inhabitants.

A local doctor concluded that some unspecified infectious agent had arrived in a package from New Orleans. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church in Charleston, South Carolina , suffered yellow fever deaths, reducing the congregation by half. In , Shreveport, Louisiana lost citizens in an day period to a Yellow fever epidemic, with over additional victims eventually succumbing.

The total death toll from August through November was approximately 1,, [79] [80].

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In , about 20, people died in a widespread epidemic in the Mississippi River Valley. The result was a huge epidemic of yellow fever. Porter took people fleeing Memphis northward in hopes of escaping the disease, but passengers were not allowed to disembark due to concerns of spreading yellow fever.

The ship roamed the Mississippi River for the next two months before unloading her passengers. Major outbreaks have also occurred in southern Europe. Gibraltar lost many to outbreaks in , , and The Duke de Richelieu deployed 30, French troops to the border between France and Spain in the Pyrenees Mountains , to establish a cordon sanitaire in order to prevent the epidemic from spreading from Spain into France.

In Colonial times and during the Napoleonic Wars, the West Indies were known as a particularly dangerous posting for soldiers due to yellow fever being endemic in the area. The mortality rate in British garrisons in Jamaica was seven times that of garrisons in Canada, mostly because of yellow fever and other tropical diseases. Wanting to regain control of the lucrative sugar trade in Saint-Domingue Hispaniola , and with an eye on regaining France's New World empire, Napoleon sent an army under the command of his brother-in-law General Charles Leclerc to Saint-Domingue to seize control after a slave revolt.

The historian J. McNeill asserts that yellow fever accounted for about 35, to 45, casualties of these forces during the fighting. In , Haiti proclaimed its independence as the second republic in the Western Hemisphere. Considerable debate exists over whether the number of deaths caused by disease in the Haitian Revolution was exaggerated.

Ezekiel Stone Wiggins , known as the Ottawa Prophet, proposed that the cause of a yellow fever epidemic in Jacksonville, Florida , in , was astrological. The planets were in the same line as the sun and earth and this produced, besides Cyclones , Earthquakes , etc. Mars had an uncommonly dense atmosphere, but its inhabitants were probably protected from the fever by their newly discovered canals , which were perhaps made to absorb carbon and prevent the disease.

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In , Josiah C. Nott suggested that yellow fever was spread by insects such as moths or mosquitoes, basing his ideas on the pattern of transmission of the disease. Yellow fever was the first virus shown to be transmitted by mosquitoes. The physician William Gorgas applied these insights and eradicated yellow fever from Havana.